Visitare Pozzuoli, un filo rosso attraverso la storia

postato in: All posts, Campania360°, Italia, Smart Tips | 304

Dal lungomare di Napoli la vista si ferma sulla meravigliosa collina di Posillipo, barriera naturale del golfo della città nascondendo la città di Pozzuoli. Proprio da qui si apre un’ulteriore insenatura che si allunga fino a Capo Miseno, e quasi come un unico braccio arriva fino alle isole di Procida e Ischia.

In questa valle affacciata sul mare è iniziata la più antica storia della regione grazie alla ricchezza dei suoi terreni vulcanici e alla protezione che le insenature offrivano: è qui infatti che un filo rosso lega la civiltà greca colonizzatrice del meridione italiano e quella romana dominatrice del mondo antico.

Parco archeologico di Cuma

Fu qui nella zona di Pozzuoli, tra i fumi della solfatara e a pochi chilometri da un Vesuvio nel pieno della sua attività che i greci stabilirono la loro prima colonia in Italia, ben protetta dalla collina di Capo Miseno, la città era accessibile solo da sud. Oggi è visitabile l’antica acropoli, collocata su due terrazze; la parte bassa è completamente scavata nel tufo giallo, risultato di secoli di eruzioni vulcaniche.

L’opera è impressionante, enormi grotte in tufo scavate a mani nude da uomini permettono l’accesso a necropoli, proteggendo gli antichi templi dedicati alle divinità elleniche. Impressionante è alzare lo sguardo e ritrovarsi sotto una parete di svariate decine di metri che pare quasi artificiale, ma che in realtà è parte integrante del paesaggio dell’intera zona a nord di Napoli e del cuore della città stessa.

Nella parte bassa dell’acropoli si incontra anche il più famoso e affascinante dei luoghi dell’intera acropoli: l’Antro della Sibilla. Anche Virgilio non resistette a far incontrare il suo eroe con questo misterioso personaggio, con la doppia funzione di veggente e sacerdotessa di Apollo e, contemporaneamente, di guida di Enea nell’oltretomba. La lunga galleria che portava al suo antro esiste ancora e rende l’idea del perchè Virgilio ne facesse un fosco ritratto, suo e dei luoghi in cui viveva per formare un tutt’uno a suggerire un’immagine di paura e, allo stesso tempo, di mistero.

Nella parte superiore dell’acropoli sorgevano una serie di templi e doveva essere spettacolare arrivare da mare e ritrovarsi ad ammirare la città da lontano. Ancora oggi la conservazione dei resti permetti di immaginare quanto fossero imponenti sia per altezza che per estensione, ma ciò che colpisce senza ombra di dubbio è il magnifico panorama.

I promontori di Procida e Ischia spuntano dalla foschia, il faro sull’isolotto di San Martino fa quasi da vedetta, il verde a ricopre lo spazio fino a ridosso del mare, dove corrono i cavalli del vicino ippodromo.

Doveva essere uno spettacolo della natura oltre 2.000 anni fa e ancora oggi l’acropoli sorprende e affascina gli occhi.

Arco felice, Monte nuovo, Lago d’Averno e Parco Sommerso di Baia

Lasciando l’acropoli dell’antica Cuma e dirigendosi verso la città di Pozzuoli è come compiere una passeggiata nella storia di questa terra. La prima cosa che si incontra, quasi come una porta che si apre su queste terre, è la grandiosa costruzione dell’Arco Felice, alto 20 metri e largo 6, un viadotto oltre che un’opera di protezione sotto cui passa ancora l’antica strada Domitiana.

In lontananza scendendo verso il mare si scorge il Monte Nuovo e poi il Lago d’Averno. Il primo è uno dei monti più giovani d’Europa e soprattutto con una delle storie più incredibili. Era infatti il 28 settembre 1538, verso mezzogiorno, quando il mare si ritirò di oltre 300 metri lasciando numerosi pesci sul fondale asciutto. Il giorno dopo però una vasta zona interna era collassata di oltre 2 metri creando una voragine e in quello stesso giorno iniziò un’attività vulcanica con la fuoriuscita, di fuoco, cenere e lava e nel giro di 48 ore quando i fumi si abbassarono era comparsa una collina di 140 m, l’attuale Monte Nuovo. Il lago d’Averno invece lega ancora una volta la sua storia a quella dell’eroe virgiliano, infatti è qui che sia i greci che i romani collocano, in tanti racconti, l’ingresso per gli inferi.

Il parco sommerso di Baia non manca di fascino, ma se volte programmare una visita forse è meglio farlo nei mesi caldi. Qui infatti, armati di maschera, potrete ammirare i resti dell’antico porto Julius, costruito durante la guerra tra Ottaviano e Pompeo, come arsenale della flotta di Capo Miseno, inseme al canale che univa il mare al Lago d’Averno e ad alcune ville nobiliari.

Pozzuoli e il Rione Terra

La città di Pozzuoli è di una bellezza unica, oltre alle passeggiate tra i vicoli tipici delle città di mare, tra il profumo delle cucine che preparano pesce e numerosi negozietti di artigianato, la città conserva un patrimonio storico unico al mondo. Innanzitutto l’Anfiteatro Flavio, voluto dall’Imperatore Vespasiano per svolgere spettacoli teatrali, concerti musicali e l’immancabile lotta dei gladiatori. Durante il Medioevo l’Anfiteatro Flavio di Pozzuoli è rimasto sepolto dai detriti vulcanici che hanno conservato intatti i suoi sotterranei. E’ incredibile ciò che si può ancora vedere: i sistemi di catene e carrucole utilizzati per portare dai sotterranei all’arena le gabbie delle belve contro cui lottavano i gladiatori.

Altra perla è il sito conosciuto come Tempio di Serapide; in realtà non è altro che il Macellum cioè il Mercato annesso all’area portuale. Le tabernae si sviluppavano intorno ad un ampio porticato, al cui centro si elevava un secondo piano dedicato alla vendita del pesce e chiuso da quattro colossali colonne, delle quali tre sono ancora in piedi.

Proprio queste colonne sono state per molti anni il miglior strumento di misurazione del fenomeno del bradisismo, infatti presentano ancora oggi evidenti tracce di fori praticati dai fossili marini. A testimonianza di una incomparabile ricchezza architettonica ci sono vaste tracce di un pavimento marmoreo e il rivestimento dei servizi igienici.

Ultima tappa di una visita a Pozzuoli non può non essere il Rione Terra, situato sulla rocca di tufo di circa 33 metri che domina il golfo di Pozzuoli, tra Nisida e Baia. Fu qui che i romani stabilirono il loro primo insediamento, fondando l’antica Puteoli durante la guerra contro Annibale principalmente per scopi bellici e poi rapidamente estesasi sino a divenire il porto di Roma e, dunque, una delle città più importanti dell’Italia romana. Fu il vicerè spagnolo, dopo l’eruzione del 1538 a decidere di far trasferire qui gli abitanti dei villaggi distrutti intorno a Monte Nuovo, sacrificando l’impianto dell’antica città, che fu riempita di materiale di scarto per la costruzione delle nuove case e in parte distrutta per far posto al nuovo quartiere. La travagliata storia del rione si chiuse però, dietro un cancello di metallo, nel 1970, tutta la zona infatti fu evacuata a causa del bradisismo e da allora è rimasta inaccessibile e abbandonata.

Oggi, grazie al progetto  “Tra terra e mare. All’origine del gusto” e ai fondi europei quasi tutta l’area dell’antica città romana è stata recuperata ed è stato creato un incredibile itinerario che ripercorre le antiche strade romane sulle quali si affacciano botteghe, magazzini, laboratori e spazi privati. L’idea di creare un turismo archeologico nuovo e più stimolante il percorso è arricchito da presenze virtuali  che guidano il pubblico alla scoperta delle attività quotidiane.

Grazie all’incredibile stato di conservazione degli edifici visibili sotto i palazzi seicenteschi ed al virtual mapping, l’immersione nella storia dell’antica città è un’esperienza spettacolare, immersiva e multisensoriale, che rende lo spettacolo più emozionante e la conoscenza di questi luoghi e dell’evoluzione umana ancora più profonda.

La storia di questa città così densa di episodi e di documenti è messa in scena attraverso effetti e istallazioni multimediali, che sono la caratteristica exhibit di questo itinerario. Il mare sembra raggiungere le case, con i suoi mille pesci e i suoi colori. Le pareti lasciano lo spazio a nuove stanze, un tempo piene di anfore e di marmi. Le attività di botteghe e taverne come per incanto si rianimano guidando il pubblico alla scoperta delle attività che si svolgevano nell’antica Puteoli.

La mostra può essere visitata gratuitamente ogni sabato e domenica, dalle 09:00 alle 17:00, ma è necessario prenotarsi ai contatti presenti sul sito www.pozzuoliterramare.it.

Se però vi capita di essere già da quelle parti, visto che ormai pare essere tutto pieno fino a febbraio, provate a passare lo stesso e con un po’ di fortuna si libereranno spazi nelle visite di quel giorno (io ho fatto così).

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