Petra, la città rosa

postato in: All posts, Medio oriente, Mondo | 176

La città rosa, scolpita nella roccia: Petra, in Giordania, nel cuore del Medio Oriente, l’antica capitale dei Nabatei, tribù nomade migrata dall’Arabia in Giordania, nascosta nella grande valle che si estende dal Mar Morto fino al Golfo di Aqaba sul mar Rosso, costruita da un popolo di commercianti, architetti e ingegneri come crocevia per controllare le rotte commerciali di incenso, mirra, spezie tra oriente e occidente, Petra mantenne il suo ruolo per 500 anni, fino alla conquista romana nel I secolo a.C.


Arrivare a Petra è di per se una sensazione unica, nascosta alla fine di un canyon di arenaria, con pareti alte 200 metri che sembrano danzare sulle nostre teste, sfiorandosi in vari punti. La gola del Siq, lunga circa un chilometro, la città ti accoglie con uno dei templi più belli e famosi della città, e viene da pensare a cosa provò Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, viaggiatore svizzero, quando, nel 1812, scoprì Petra, città di pietra rimasta nell’ombra per secoli.

Il Tesoro, o Khazne, è il nome del primo monumento che si incontra lungo il percorso: con la sua enorme facciata, alta 40 metri, in pietra rosa scolpita nella roccia, pare che il nome derivi dal tesoro che si pensa sia conservato sulla cima all’interno di un’urna funeraria. La vallata poi si apre ai visitatori in un susseguirsi di rocce dai colori rosa, rosso, giallo, viola e nero, che sfumano uno nell’altro creando un inebriante gioco cromatico, e di architetture rupestri, templi, palazzi reali.

Il territorio arido e roccioso e il deserto inglobano e circondano a città, e viene da pensare come fosse possibile che un tempo qui giardini e fontane si alternassero continuamente, oltre al via vai di mercanti, cammelli, dromedari e merci che attraversavano la valle nel lungo peregrinare sulle antiche rotte commerciali che dall’Asia portavano all’Egitto e al Mediterraneo, quando nessuna frontiera impediva il passaggio di uomini e la multi-culturalità delle grandi città non era un pregio, ma la normalità. Ancora oggi sono visibili numerosi canali di irrigazione, vasche per la raccolta d’acqua piovana, cisterne sotterranee, tutto intonacato con gesso impermeabile. Il tutto è collegato attraverso una rete idrica in leggera pendenza, fatta di tubi di terracotta o di ceramica che alimentava l’acquedotto, le 200 cisterne, i bacini di raccolta ed un ninfeo.

Dopo essere entrati nella città godetevi i palazzi e monumenti di Petra che si svelano uno ad uno tra le rocce colorate lungo la cosiddetta Via delle Facciate: la Fontana del Leone, la Tomba del Giardino, la Tomba del Soldato Romano ed una necropoli, per arrivare infine al teatro romano, scavato nel fianco della montagna, ai piedi dell’Altura del Sacrificio; composto da sette enormi scaloni, poteva ospitare fino a 4.000 spettatori, fu costruito dal re Areta IV nel II secolo d.C.

Non limitatevi ai percorsi classici per turisti, affrontate le numerose scale e seguite i sentieri tracciati e percorsi dai muli, vi porteranno alla scoperta di zone della città con panorami mozzafiato, che si affacciano sul deserto e sull’enorme valle, oltre ad incontrare numerose tombe monumentali, con portali scolpiti, archi, sale funerarie che un tempo dovevano contenere enormi corredi di oggetti e monili preziosi che rappresentassero al meglio la ricchezza degli ospiti. Da non perdere è anche il Jabal Haroun, dove la leggenda narra si trovasse la tomba di Aronne, fratello di Mosè.

Il percorso vi guiderà inevitabilmente ad un altro gioiello della città; a differenza del Tempio del Tesoro, che rappresenta l’ingresso della città, quasi speculare si erge l’Ad-Deir, il Monastero, che chiude l’intera visita del sito archeologico. Il tempio, scavato nella roccia, si trova alla fine di 800 scalini scavati nella roccia, dalla cui cima è possibile ammirare l’intero sito e il deserto che lo circonda.

La visita di Petra deve necessariamente iniziare all’alba, le temperature e la mancanza di grosse zone d’ombra trasforma il sito in un posto molto caldo. Iniziando all’alba e dedicando a Petra l’intera giornata potrete riposarvi nelle ore più calde, oltre a girare l’intero complesso con calma.

Per girare la città si ha bisogno di abbigliamento comodo, anzi comodissimo, all’interno del sito c’è qualche ristorante e diversi bar particolarmente elegante, che noi abbiamo evitato accuratamente perchè pieni di grosse comitive di turisti. Trovatene qualcuno più piccolo, gestito dai beduini, che sono anche in posizioni panoramiche e comode, oppure sedetevi a prendere il tè con i beduini lungo i percorsi: piccole braci sono sempre accese e l’acqua nelle teiere è sempre calda. L’ospitalità da queste parti è sempre fantastica.

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