Lisbona: Fado, Porto e dolce saudade

postato in: All posts, Europa, Lucia | 250

Lisbona se ne sta distesa lungo le sponde del fiume Tago e arrampicata sui suoi sette colli. Però il suo fiume sembra un mare quando ne scorgi un pezzetto dall’alto di una collina, e andare su e giù per la città ti fa sentire un po’ sulle montagne russe. Quello che è certo è che ad ogni salita e discesa Lisbona nasconde una scoperta, un angolo speciale, e cose buone da bere e da mangiare!

Passeggiare nei diversi quartieri della città vi farà scoprire i mille colori che compongono il mosaico culturale di Lisbona.

Si può partire dalla zona della Baixa partendo dal Rossio, considerato il centro del centro di Lisbona: la piazza ospita la statua di Dom Pedro IV e il teatro nazionale, ed è circondata da strade larghe e numerosi bar con tavolini all’aperto. Poco distante si apre Praça da Figueira, e in una delle strade adiacenti sorge la Igreja de São Domingos, costruita nel XIII secolo e che fu testimone per molto tempo degli orrori dell’Inquisizione. L’interno della chiesa riporta molto visibili i danni subiti a seguito di due terremoti ed un incendio, ma conserva tuttora un aspetto tetro e severo che merita decisamente una visita.

Dalla piazza del Rossio si scende poi su Rua Augusta fino a raggiungere l’Arco da Victorìa e l’immensa Praça do Comércio, dove un tempo sbarcavano tutti i viaggiatori provenienti dall’oceano. La piazza è campeggiata dalla statua equestre dedicata a Dom José I ed è circondata da palazzi settecenteschi che ospitano ministeri governativi.

Risalendo verso il Rossio dalla Rua Aurea si può raggiungere l’Elevador de Santa Justa, un ascensore in ferro battuto progettato da Raul Mesnier du Ponsard, allievo di Gustave Eiffel, che prese evidentemente ispirazione dal proprio maestro! Questo ascensore permette di raggiungere facilmente il quartiere del Bairro alto e dall’alto offre una splendida vista sulla città e sul fiume Tago. I quartieri del Chiado e del Bairro Alto sono per lo più quartieri residenziali, formati da un reticolo di stradine strette che si susseguono in salita ed in discesa, piccoli slarghi e diversi belvedere sulla città, come il Miradouro de São Pedro de Alcantara e il Miradouro de Santa Catarina. Questa zona della città si anima soprattutto di sera, quando i locali si riempiono di musica e di gente che chiacchiera a voce alta bevendo Porto o vinho verde!

Da questa parte della città è possibile prendere il famoso tram 28, che si inerpica instancabile sui colli di Lisbona. Di solito questo tram è pieno di turisti, che stipati l’uno contro l’altro ad ammirare, o cercare di intravedere, le meraviglie della città, sono facili prede dei borseggiatori. Quello che vi consigliamo è di prendere il tram 28 di sera, quando la calca è ormai diminuita, e lasciarvi portare in giro per la città seduti più o meno comodamente sui vecchi sedili di legno.

Il tram 28 continua il suo percorso fino a raggiungere il quartiere più antico della città, l’Alfama, dove vi sembrerà di essere stati catapultati in una medina mediorientale. Questo quartiere si sviluppa sulle colline rocciose, ed è quindi attraversato da strette scalinate in pietra e vicoli irregolari. Una visita da non perdere è quella alla Sé, cattedrale romanica che somiglia moltissimo ad una fortezza. I ristoranti dell’Alfama sono il luogo ideale in cui lasciarsi ammaliare dalle note malinconiche del fado, famoso genere di musica popolare portoghese che si ispira ai temi dell’amore, del destino, della lontananza e di tutto ciò che riporta al sentimento della saudade. è buona norma assistere alle esibizioni di fado in assoluto silenzio se si vuole evitare di essere cacciati dal locale!

Nei dintorni dell’Alfama si trovano il Castelo de São Jorge, ricco di cortili e giardini ed offre una magnifica vista della città, e il quartiere di Graça, dove si trova lo splendido Miradouro (belvedere), il Panteão Nacional e la Igreja de São Vincente de Fora.

Ad est del quartiere dell’Alfama, a circa 1 km dalla stazione di Santa Apolònia, si trova il Museu Nacional do Azulejos, dove sono esposti numerosi esempi di quest’arte formata da piastrelle in ceramica risalenti ad epoche diverse, dal XV al XX secolo.

Una visita assolutamente da non perdere è quella al quartiere di Belem, facilmente raggiungibile con il bus 15E. Fu proprio da qui che Vasco da Gama partì nel 1497 alla scoperta della rotta per le Indie, cambiando radicalmente l’equilibrio del potere mondiale. La prima sosta inevitabile, anche perché il bus ferma proprio lì davanti è alla pasticceria Pasteis de Belem, dove si possono gustare i dolci alla crema più buoni di tutta Lisbona! Fuori dalla pasticceria c’è quasi sempre la fila, ma è anche possibile sedersi all’interno in una delle molte sale decorate con azulejos. E se non vi va di aspettare, potrete tornarci alla fine della visita…si narra che la pasticceria, fondata nel 1837, non abbia mai chiuso, e che sforni più di 30 mila pasteis al giorno!

Una volta rifocillati potrete procedere con la visita al Mosteiro dos Jeronimos, la cui costruzione, ispirata dalle scoperte di Vasco da Gama, iniziò nel 1501. Il monastero e l’adiacente chiesa sono in stile manuelino, caratterizzato da esuberanti creazioni scultoree, che spesso richiamano temi marinareschi. La chiesa raggiunge i 25 metri di altezza, ed ospita la tomba di Vasco da Gama, mentre nel chiostro è sepolto il più famoso poeta e scrittore portoghese, Fernando Pessoa.


La visita a Belem prosegue spostandosi sul lungofiume, dove si trova il Padrão dos Descobrimientos (Monumento delle Scoperte), monumento in calcare del 1960 che ha la forma di una caravella carica dei più illustri personaggi portoghesi, dai navigatori ai poeti. Passeggiando verso ovest lungo il fiume è possibile raggiungere la Torre de Belèm, costruita all’inizio del ‘500, che originariamente, prima del ritirarsi delle acque, si trovava al centro della corrente del fiume ed aveva funzioni di sorveglianza per l’ingresso alla città.

Sul lato nord-orientale del fiume Tago, si trova il Parque das Nações, facilmente raggiungibile con il bus 728 o la metro (fermata Oriente), sede del fantastico Oceanario, che ospita moltissime specie provenienti da tutti i mari del mondo. Nella vasca centrale è possibile osservare squali, razze, grandi tonni e tantissimi altri animali che lasceranno a bocca aperta grandi e piccini. Il parco ospita inoltre il Padiglione della Conoscenza ed un parco giochi.

Se avete voglia di trascorrere mezza giornata all’insegna dell’arte e della cultura non potete perdere una visita alla Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian (fermata della metro São Sebastao o Praça de Espanha), che rappresenta la principale istituzione culturale del Portogallo. Gulbenkian, filantropo turco che si stabilì a Lisbona, arricchì la propria collezione di migliaia di opere che coprono le epoche di maggiore splendore dell’arte occidentale ed orientale. Dalla sala egizia a quella cinese a quella di arte europea, questo museo conserva tesori per tutti i gusti! La Fondazione ospita anche il Centro de Arte Moderna, dove è possibile ammirare una vasta collezione di arte portoghese moderna. Nei pressi della Fondazione si trova il Parque Eduardo VII, con serre e aree giochi, che sarà particolarmente apprezzato da chi viaggia con i propri bambini.

La meta ideale per una gita fuori porta è la piccola cittadina di Sintra, facilmente raggiungibile dalla capitale con un viaggio in treno di circa 45 minuti. Il villaggio è circondato da foreste rigogliose e palazzi stravaganti, e la visita al Palacio Nacional e al Palacio Da Pena vi farà sentire dentro una favola!

Lisbona è la città della dolce saudade, che non ostenta le proprie bellezze, ma che da sempre accoglie ed ammalia i viaggiatori, distesa sul fiume, arrampicata sui colli.


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