Villa dei Misteri – Splendore dal passato

postato in: All posts, Campania360°, Italia | 121

Eccola Villa dei Misteri, bella ed elegante, con i suoi colori rosso acceso e i satiri che danzano tra arbusti e fontane. Composta di 70 ambienti, la villa fu costruita nel II sec. a.C su un costone che affacciava sul mare; Villa dei Misteri ospitava i suoi signori, ma lasciò a bocca aperta anche l’Imperatore Augusto che la volle come parte del suo dominio imperiale.

Ancora oggi lascia i suoi ospiti a bocca aperta e dopo due anni di restauro, da ieri riapre le sue porte; su un territorio costellato di antiche e nobili dimore romane, Villa dei Misteri rappresenta uno dei maggiori esempi dell’architettura classica.

Il solo nome evoca fascino e storie del passato, ma il nome si deve al grande dipinto che raffigura un rito misterico di iniziazione. L’eruzione del Vesuvio purtroppo ha seppellito gran parte degli oggetti nella casa, ma ha lasciato miracolosamente intatte le pitture della Villa. Dipinte con la tecnica della megalographia, tutte le pareti sono ricche di personaggi a grandezza naturale.

La villa è a pianta quadrata e si trova su una collinetta dalla quale si godeva una meravigliosa vista sul golfo di Napoli; poggia in parte su un terrapieno ed in parte è sostenuta da arcate cieche utilizzate come deposito. L’ingresso principale si trova lungo una via secondaria che al resto della città di Pompei. Appena entrati si accede al quartiere rustico e servile con diversi ambienti adibiti a panificio, cucine, forno, torchio e una cella per i vini. Superato un piccolo ingresso si accede alle quattro stanze che rappresentano il cuore della zona signorile: un peristilio a sedici colonne, un grande atrio decorato con paesaggi, il tablino ed una veranda con vista mare che oggi rappresenta l’ingresso. Tutt’intorno si sviluppano le camere come il triclinio del grande fregio ed il quartiere termale.

Le decorazioni parietali si differenziano a seconda del periodo storico durante le quali sono state realizzate: il tablino è affrescato con pareti nere e decorazioni in stile egittizzante, tipiche del terzo e quarto stile, mentre in molti ambienti spicca il secondo stile, come nella sala, dove si raggiunge uno nei massimi esempi di questo stile.

Quasi certamente la padrona di casa, seguace o addirittura sacerdotessa di Bacco, ha commissionato all’artista l’intera opera. Attirano e coinvolgono lo spettatore gli intensi e folgoranti colori della sequenza delle scene, le raffigurazioni occupano tre pareti della Grande Sala e ancora oggi non si è certi sull’interpretazione delle scene. Probabilmente le sequenze rappresentano momenti di un rito iniziatico al dio Dionisio o preparativi di un matrimonio.

In una scena un bambino legge un papiro sotto lo sguardo attento di una matrona e una donna cammina verso un gruppo di altre donne portando in mano un piatto di offerte sacre. Intorno ad un tavolo ci sono tre donne che preparano gli strumenti per la cerimonia sacrificale. Un Sileno che suona e canta volgendo lo sguardo sulla parete opposta alla coppia di Dionisio e Arianna mentre una Panisca allatta una capretta.

Si scorge Dionisio in grembo a Core che assiste alla cerimonia e la fanciulla con la schiena nuda che viene fustigata per mano della ministra del dio. La giovane donna, dopo aver superato la prova della flagellazione, può gioire perché è divenuta Baccante ed è in comunione con il Dio.

Villa dei Misteri e l’intera cittù di Pompei sono gioielli del passato che raccontano di una quotidianità straordinaria che ancora oggi rivive grazie ai resti di una civiltà che rappresenta una parte indelebile della nostra storia.

Pictures by Uffcio Stampa Mibact

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