Sarajevo, un gioiello nel cuore d’Europa

Eccola Sarajevo, piovosa, malinconica, sbuca alle spalle della montagna, l’aria ti riempie i polmoni e respiri storia, vita e morte in ogni strada.

Sarajevo puzza di ‘900, quello marcio delle guerre, della pulizia etnica, dei massacri che hanno segnato l’inizio e la fine del secolo breve; Sarajevo profuma di nuovo mondo, quello che fa della religione uno strumento e non un fine, quello che ride del suo passato e che chiama rose i segni delle granate esplose appena 20 anni fa.

info-sarajevo (2)Cosa ci aspettavamo da Sarajevo? Nessuno di noi lo sapeva e nessuno di noi voleva costruirsi nella propria testa l’immagine di una città che per troppo tempo avevamo rincorso. Fatto è che Sarajevo non avrebbe deluso le nostre aspettative, questo lo sapevamo.

Le nubi che coprivano la città ieri sera al nostro arrivo sono ancora qui stamattina, ma usciamo, il nostro giro lo iniziamo affacciandoci nei vicoli che salgono alle spalle del centro storico, le case coprono la strada, un prato verde compare tra i muri colorati. Un prato verde puntellato di bianco, sul versante della collina, sale e mette i brividi man mano ci si avvicina. E’ il Cimitero dei martiri di Kovaci, sulle pendici di una collina; le tombe, vicinissime, sono obelischi bianchi che brillano ai raggi del poco sole che la città offre oggi.

In verde, colore dell’Islam, risaltano sulle lapidi in marmo i nomi delle vittime e le date, tutte uguali: 1993, 1994, 1995, i giorni dell’assedio. Pochi centimetri più giù il versetto del Corano che parla della vita nell’aldilà. Cosa passerà per la testa di un bosniaco vedendoci passeggiare tra le tombe armati di fotocamera? Basta il sorriso delle persone che incrociamo a toglierci ogni dubbio, sembra quasi che ci invitino a fotografare di più, l’unico modo per non dimenticare mai cos’è successo qui.

Sarajevo è stata la città che più ha subito le atrocità della guerra. Quasi quattro anni di assedio hanno lasciato segni che ancora oggi sono visibili su alcuni palazzi e strade. Tutto in città però profuma di rinascita e di riscatto, il sorriso della gente, l’accoglienza e soprattutto la multi-culturalità, che da sempre ha caratterizzato la città e che ancora oggi è un punto fermo.

Le rose di Sarajevo sono uno dei simboli di questa rinascita: tracce di granate lasciate sull’asfalto e sui palazzi che ricoperte di rosso si sono trasformate in simboli di bellezza e amore.

sarajevo-visitare (3)

sarajevo-visitare (5)Scendendo dalla collina torniamo sulla strada e proseguiamo verso il centro, aumentano i rumori e i profumi, il richiamo del muezzin si fa spazio tra il vociare della piazza, fino a coprire tutti i suoni, la voce arriva dalle diverse moschee, una voce che diventa musica e invade l’aria. La Baščaršija, il vecchio bazar, il quartiere ottomano ricco di viuzze, dove i tetti bassi e rossi chiudono il cielo è il cuore della città antica, ancora oggi con le sue moschee, i ponti sul fiume. Davanti alla Sebilj (1), la fontana al centro della piazza, costruita nel 1753, simbolo di Sarajevo, i turisti in posa si mescolano a chi va li per rifornirsi d’acqua; intanto il profumo di carne ci attira verso le vie interne (2), a qualsiasi orario, gli artigiani del rame martellano e modellano oggetti di qualsiasi forma e dimensione e noi cominciamo la giornata nel più classico dei modi: caffè bosniaco, servito con i lokum, cubetti di gelatina ai petali di rosa, ricoperti di zucchero a velo, che contrastano con l’amaro del caffè. All’angolo di Ulica Bravadziluk con Ulica Kazandziluk una donna prepara il caffè tradizionale, l’acqua bolle, la polvere di caffè si deposita sul fondo della tazzina.

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sarajevo-visitare (6)Poi compare quasi inaspettatamente, uno scorcio laterale colorato, di un arancione intenso, neanche il lato migliore di un edificio che per anni è stato il simbolo della brutalità umana. Cosa può annientare davvero un popolo? La distruzione della sua storia, dei suoi archivi, delle sua cultura. Questo avranno pensato i generali che diedero l’ordine di bombardare la Vijecnica (3), la Biblioteca della città, 4 aerei serbi che sganciarono decine di bombe, 4 aerei e 4 secondi per cancellare 400 anni di storia. Fu costruita dagli imperatori asburgici in perfetto stile ottomano, un incontro di culture che oggi torna a risplendere dopo 20 anni di restauri, in ricordo anche di quei giovani che combattevano contro le fiamme con secchi sporchi di fango portando in salvo scatole piene di libri. [http://goo.gl/Q1SWhf].

sarajevo-visitare (4)

sarajevo-visitare (7)Il lungofiume è uno spettacolo di palazzi arabi e austriaci che si incastrano e si alternano, balconi decadenti ricchi di intarsi in metallo, la Moschea dell’Imperatore (4) è un gioiello del 1566, dedicata al sovrano Solimano I. All’interno è ricca di luoghi di riposo per le carovane di pellegrini, osterie, bagni turchi, un monastero musulmano e botteghe.

Ma Sarajevo è storia ad ogni angolo, ci avviciniamo a quello che oggi è chiamato Ponte Latino (5), una scritta dice, qui ebbe inizio il 20° secolo, il secolo breve, niente di più vero. Lo attraversiamo con quel minimo di solennità che la storia impone, all’angolo della strada due colpi di pistola fecero piombare nel caos l’intera Europa, Gavino Princip, uccidendo l’erede al trono d’Austria Franz Ferdinand, divenne di diritto uno dei personaggi più amati ed odiati della storia, ma di fatto offrì il pretesto che portò allo scoppio dell I° Guerra Mondiale.

info-sarajevo (1)Rientriamo di nuovo nei vicoli del centro (6), questa volta alla ricerca di un buon piatto per il pranzo, le offerte non mancano e subito dopo ci dirigiamo verso la Moschea Gazi Husrev-Beg (7), costruita nel 1531, è uno dei più importanti esempi di architettura islamica della Bosnia-Erzegovina e dell’ex impero Ottomano. La moschea è famosa per la bellezza della sua cupola centrale e per i suoi tetims, le cupole laterali, più piccole. Sulla piazza del mercato antistante domina il minareto, alto circa 45 metri e poco lontano la Torre dell’orologio. Il meccanismo è di fattura inglese e ha la funzione di ricordare agli indaffarati mercanti i 5 momenti della preghiera. Secondo la tradizione del calendario islamico, il nuovo giorno comincia nel momento del tramonto. Ogni giorno, quindi, è necessario apportare qualche modifica all’ora, a causa dell’allungarsi delle giornate e delle ore di luce fino al tramonto.

sarajevo-visitare (1)

Ultime due tappe per completare il nostro giro a piedi sono la Ferhadija (8), la strada Austro-Ungarica, ricca di palazzi e di monumenti di inizio ‘900. La Cattedrale e la Chiesa Ortodossa sono due esempi dell’accoglienza che si riceve a Sarajevo. Da non perdere anche il mercato, quello coperto e alle spalle,il Makale, tristemente famoso per la strage del 5 febbraio 1994. La fiamma eterna ci saluta, la Vječna Vatra (9) arde dal 1945 a ricordare la liberazione dai nazisti e i morti di tutte le guerre.

Eccola Sarajevo, soleggiata, rumorosa, accogliente, una città che regala emozioni, che profuma di storia, che accoglie chi la ama, che accoglie tutti.

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